Making the computer speak BEE

What do web pages, numeric computing, knitting and BEE have in common? Not much, it seems. But I have a suggestion: They can all benefit from domain-specific programming languages.

I’m a software developer at Mpowered. I came here after many years of programming language research at Chalmers University. More specifically, my area was in domain-specific programming languages (DSLs). These are “little languages” that are made to solve problems in a limited domain. As such, they are designed to speak the language of the domain expert rather than the programmer.

This post will present DSLs in general and demonstrate a DSL we use at Mpowered.



MATLAB (“MATrix LABoratory”) is a programming language for numerical processing. It aims to make such programs easier to write by supporting notation familiar to mathematicians. A large part of our daily lives are built around data processing units — for example TV sets, mobile phones and base stations, control systems in smart cars, etc. There’s a high probability that these programs are based on mathematical equations that have first been prototyped and tested in MATLAB. Some applications even run directly in MATLAB and its associated tooling.

Just to throw in a bit of a wild card into the mix: there is even a DSL for knitting patterns.

How about this program for making a “pie crust basketweave” pattern:

I admittedly have no idea how to read the above. But to someone who knows the language, it makes perfect sense. Again, the point is that it captures exactly the right amount of information for creating the pattern. It does not say anything about color or thickness of the thread, for example.


The main advantage of DSLs is the fact that they can be used by domain experts who are not necessarily programmers in the ordinary sense. But this is not just a matter of understandability. By limiting the kinds of programs one can write, we can actually do more things with them than we can with programs in general-purpose languages.

A good illustration is HTML, which does not by itself support any kind of computations or actions (such as reading the disk, starting other programs, etc.). Because of this limitation, we can do things with HTML pages that we generally cannot do with ordinary programs (written in Java, say):

  • We can interpret the same HTML page in different ways — with different styles and layouts, for example.
  • We can analyze the page, e.g. to see what other pages it links to.
  • We can split the page in parts and render each section in parallel.
  • Etc.


The above table shows the first two Ownership indicators of the amended ICT codes. Note how the table covers only the essential information related to each indicator: the measured value (“Exercisable Voting Rights …”), the compliance target and the weighting points.

The indicator tables speak the language of the BEE expert. Wouldn’t it be nice if the BEEtoolkit software could understand this language as well?

Indeed, our code has a DSL for indicator definitions. (And to be clear, this DSL was in place before I started here.) Here is what the above indicators look like in our DSL:

(Some readers will recognize the above snippet as being embedded in the YAML format. This is only an implementation technicality. It is still a DSL in the sense it speaks to the domain experts and gets interpreted according to the rules of BEE.)

We recognize the key information from the sector code tables, although it is laid out slightly differently. There are also some extra descriptions and formatting in there, which is used when the indicators get presented in various parts of our system. This extra information is definitely part of the domain, and thus makes sense to support in the DSL.

The sector codes often define side-conditions that change the parameters of an indicator, etc. Our DSL is able to capture these variations as well, but we’re not going into the details here.

Note that the above definitions are the single source of truth for said indicators in our system. That code is accessed every time a user opens up a scorecard in the browser, downloads a PDF report, etc. This also means that a BEE expert could, in principle, tweak an indicator throughout the whole system without knowing the slightest thing about programming in general.



When to DSL?

Designing a versatile, high-quality DSL, such as HTML, is rarely a good idea. The costs can easily outweigh the benefits, and chances are that suitable options already exist. However, DSLs can also be rather simple and highly specialized. Projects can even make DSLs for purely internal use.

You have already seen one example of a simple but useful DSL for BEE indicators. Here are two more ideas that can hopefully give some inspiration.


Numeric expressions

Imagine you have an application centered around numeric calculations, and you find out there’s a need to not only run the calculations but also inspect them. For example, you may want to

  • track what variables different parts of the calculation refer to
  • generate the expressions in other formats (e.g. Excel or Javascript)
  • etc.

DSLs shine in situations like this. And because of the universality of numeric expressions, many such DSLs already exist. One example is the Ruby package Dentaku.


Data validation

Does your program receive data from different sources and you want to ensure consistent data validation across the system?

You may try to invent a simple format that expresses your requirements. For example, the following could describe a valid person in a job application system:

Again, this situation is common enough that many alternatives already exist in different programming languages. Ruby’s Active Record is one example of a library that comes with a validation DSL.

I’ve previously said that the limitations of a DSL allows us to do more it. Can you think about something the above description could be used for besides validating data?

Well, we can just as well view the description as a “template” for generating new data, can’t we? In other words, a single data format description can be used both for validation and test data generation. DSLs for the win!



Summary and discussion


Author – Emil Axelsson, 14 May 2020